LTSP (Linux Terminal Server Project) provides a low cost platform for diskless worstations used as GNU/ LINUX terminals - run both in a graphical or character mode.
How does LTSP work?
In a standard network a server with an operating system contains data, which is made available for a local network. A workstation running its own operating system is connected to the server on which it runs certain files.
Network based on workstations equipped with their own hard disks and operating systems
Network based on a diskless terminal
Using LTSP, a diskless workstation receives from DHCP and TFTP its own IP address and a server kernel, then it runs basic system files from the server through NFS. All operations are done on the server but the final result is displayed on the workstations. For this reason, they don't need a lot of RAM memory, fast processors, or large hard disks.
"Normal" workstations versus LTSP
Visually, there is no difference for the end user whether their workstation is equipped with a hard disk or not. In both cases, when the computer is switched on, an operating system is loaded and a typical desktop is displayed. The speed of loading as well as the speed of program execution are also unchanged. The entire network is built the same way, which means that all its computers are connected with a switch (or switches).
Workstation with an Windows operating system and a running INVOICER MADAR program
Diskless terminal with a running INVOICER MADAR program
Easier handling and management of documents
In a typical office there is a computer on every desk, each containing a powerful hard disk, operating system and programs. All the users collect their data on the local hard disks (or on a server) which are hardly ever subject to backup.
While using LTSP no user will ever save a document in the wrong place because all the information is written only on the server. This is a way to ensure a full control over documents and user access.
System resistant to disk failure
Collecting data on a single server and providing an additional disk connected via RAID 1, the administrator receives a data backup. Of course, it is recommended to make additional copies
on CD's or other drives to avoid data loss in case of both disk failure or theft, for example.
Before you decide to use LTSP
+ low equipment failure rate
+ full control over data and user access
+ free software
+ high efficiency
+ low cost workstations
+ one operating system (server)
+ easy administration (all settings on one computer)
+ compatible with MADAR program
- run only on LINUX operating system.
- network speed - at least 100mb/s
Computers are less prone to fail because workstations don't carry the processing load and are not equpped with hard disks.
With LTSP one can use some inexpensive PC's (around 600 PLN) - a hard disk, CD-ROM's and other drives are not installed. The system will need a network card (most of the new motherboards have one already built-in), which starts the comp. Most of the software is free
(OpenOffice, GIMP, Mozilla Firefox, Mozilla ThunderBird). One needs a single operating system, which is installed on a server. Having 20 workstations can save even up to several thousand PLN.
Additionally, the user can install MADAR program. This is how.
Minimum requirements for the terminals:
- Pentium class processor
- 64MB RAM (for system kernel)
- motherboard (any type)
- graphic card (any type)
- network card (any typewith bootrom 100MBit/s)
No need for:
- hard disk
- 1.44 disk drives
- fast processors
- lot of RAM
- large graphic cards
Cost - examples
Estimated cost of 20 workstations using programs and operating systems by Microsoft and Linux.
server with a 64-bit processor, 1GB RAM,
2xHDD 80GB SATA without a monitor (price ~2.100 PLN)
20 workstations with a 2GHz processor, 256MB RAM, 1xHDD 80GB + LCD monitor
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Standard for10 stations (price ~4.490PLN)
2x license for 5 additional stations (price ~993PLN)
20 operating systems Windows XP HOME (price ~5.700PLN)
20x Office 2003 (price ~13.600PLN)
TOTAL: 59.883PLN NET
server with two 64-bit rpocessors, 2GB RAM,
4x 80GB SATA without monitor (price ~4.300PLN)
20 workstations with a 2GHz processor,
128MB RAM + LCD monitor
Suse Linux 9.2 (price 0PLN)
licenses (price 0PLN)
20 operating systems available via LAN
OpenOffice on 20 stations(price 0PLN)
TOTAL: 26.100PLN NET
To add to it additional cost of 21 licenses for ativirus program for Windows (Linux doesn't generally need an antivirus program) will increase the difference to
How to start it?
The description of Suse 9.1 distribution.
In order to install LTSP on the server, one needs the following:
The ltsp-4.1-1.iso (CD image) should be burned ona CD with a standard CD burner.
Install ltsp-utils in the root (su -):
rpm -i ltsp-0.10-0.noarch.rpm
Select Configure the installer options, point to the path where the source fiiles are located, in the example they are on a CD, type in the path of the source:
file:///media/cdrom/ this is just an example, one should select the CD-ROM drive
Path where LTSP is to be installed:
If HTTP proxy is used, you should type in the adsress. In this case, you should write:
If FTP proxy is used, you should type in the address. In this case, you should write:
The program will ask whether the data is correct, OK by pressing y
Select Install/Update LTSP Packages - the program will beinstalled and you can move to settings
Configure LTSP - LTSP wil analyze the server with respect to the running deamons (DHCP, NFS, TFTP, Portmapper, and XDMCP).
After analysis you should select Configure the services manually
Interface selection: select the network card which is to make the operating system available to other workstations. If there is one, you should type in eth0
DHCP configuration: no selection needed. It will be set manually.
TFTP configuration: if there is a massage displayed on the screen, which reads"tftp is already enabled and running!" , you can exit and move on, otherwise you should download and install TFTP daemon.
Portmapper configuration: "portmap is already enabled and running!" as above.
NFS configuration: "nfsd is already enabled and running!" as above.
XDMCP configuration: "The Xdmcp service is already enabled and running!" as above.
Create /etc/hosts entries: "Do you want to add entries to /etc/hosts (y/n) ?" press "y"
192.168.0.10; "adres IP serwera"
192.168.0.10; "adres IP serwera"
"192.168.0.10:/opt/ltsp/i386"; "IP address of the server and the path to LTSP
00:11:2f:03:2c:9c; "MAC adaddress of the terminal network card
192.168.0.22; "IP addess of the terminal "
"/lts/nazwa_kernela/pxelinux.0"; "LTSP kernel path"
TFTP must be set to "/tftpboot/"
Add a user to LINUX, like in dhcpd.conf (e.g. using YAST).
In the terminal BIOS you set "boot from the network card" , save the settings and reset the terminal. If properly set up, you should see an operating system loading with a user log-in window.